Braşov – chronological references
1235 - The first mention in documents of Brasov town under the name Corona.
1377 - Brașov is confirmed as administrative centre.
1379 - Braşovul becomes the ecclesiastical seat of Tara Barsei, named in the first historical sources Barasu, Burcia, Brasso.
1383 - Starts the construction of Saint Mary Church, concluded in 1477. Towards the end of the XIVth century begin the works at the fortifications surrounding the town, concluded in 1646.
1388 - The first mention of the school under the authority of Saint Mary Church of Brașov;
1395 - At Brasov is concluded the anti-ottoman alliance between Sigismund de Luxemburg, the King of Hungary and Mircea the Old, the ruler of Wallachia;
1399 - The first mention in documents of the orthodox church of the Romanians from Scheii Brașovului;
1400 - The first Turkish invasion of Țara Bârsei, followed by the one occurred in 1421, when Brasov town is partially destroyed, and the Magistrate is taken in captivity;
acord1420 - It is concluded the Treaty between the Reunion of Tara Barsei District and the Furriers Guild, concerning the construction of the Council's House ;
1475 - The first taxes lists conserved in Brasov, where there are mentioned the four squares of the town;
1480-1506 - The writings of Gheorghe Grămăticul attest the Romanian didactic activity in Brașov;
1486 - Brașov and Țara Bârsei are included in the Saxon University – Universitas Saxonum;
1521 - The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung addressed to the judge mayor of Brasov - the first document conserved in Romanian language;
1541 - The proclamation of the Transylvania's Princedom, after the fall of the Hungarian Kingdom under the Turks;
1542 - The adoption of the Lutheran religion by the Saxond and Magyar population of Brașov;
1539 - The beginning of the typographic activity of the humanist Johannes Honterus, who organizes in 1541 the German Grammar school on the location of Saint Catherine monastery and in 1547 establishes the school library, which used to host the biggest books collection of Transylvania;
1556-1583 - The activity of Dean Coresi, the biggest Romanian typographer of the XVIth century;
1558 - The first mention in documents of the Magyar school of Brașov;
1600 - Michael the Brave visits Brasov and summons here the Diet of Transylvania;
1612 - The judge mayor Michael Weiss leads the battle against the prince Gabriel Bathori;
1686 - Transylvania becomes part of the Habsburg Empire. In 1688 the inhabitants of Brasov riot against the new rulers of Brasov and in 1689 occurs the big fire, which provokes the biggest urban disaster of the settlement's history;
1736 - Urban civil works undertaken by the Austrians: the construction of a road towards Wallachia through Timiş notch, in 1737 the Council Market is paved with stone;
1776-1782 - The construction of the most representative Baroque building of the town, The Roman-Catholic Church Saints Peter and Paul;
1781 - The Emperor Joseph the IInd issues the Conviviality Rescript and the Edict of religious tolerance according to which the Romanians acquire the same rights as the other nations’ members. In 1784-1787 - is erected the Saint Trinity Greek Church, the first orthodox cult halidom of Brasov’s Stronghold;
1804 - The public lighting (with oil) is installed in the Stronghold;
1835 - It is established “Casina română” („The Romanian Gathering”). In 1838 came out “Gazeta de Transilvania” („The Transylvanian Gazette”) and “Foaie pentru minte, inimă şi literatură” („Sheet for mind, heart and literature”), two papers edited by George Bariţiu.
The Revolution of 1848. The anthem “Deșteaptă-te române!” , on lyrics written by Andrei Mureșianu.
1851 - It is established the first Romanian grammar school of Braşov, nowadays The National College “Andrei Şaguna”;
1854 - The installation of the telegraph in Brașov;
1864 - The construction of the Aerian Gas Factory;
1873 - The inauguration of Brasov Railway-station, at the same time with the first railway Braşov-Sighişoara;
1882 - The national opening night of the comic opera “Crai Nou” of the composer Ciprian Porumbescu;
1889 - The first telephone stations in Braşov;
1897-1898 - The construction of the Finances Palace, the actual seat of Brașov City Hall;
1916 - The entrance of the Romanian Army in Brașov, during the mandate of Gheorghe Baiulescu, the first Romanian mayor of the town. On December 1st 1918 was declared the Union of Transylvania with Romania.
THE TOWN’S HISTORY
Braşov was mentioned for the first time in documents in 1235 under the name Corona in Catalogus Ninivensis, as a settlement which used to host a monastery of the catholic premonstratensis religious order. The beginnings of the town's history dates back however several decades earlier, being linked to the German colonization in the region and the donation of Ţara Bârsei, the south-eastern area of Transylvania, made by the King Andrew II of Hungary to the Teutonic Knights, in 1211, the locality being established just years after, most probably in 1213.
Subsequently to the Tartars' invasion occurred in the spring of 1241, Braşov became the political-administrative centre of Ţara Bârsei – mentioned in 1252, as terra Saxonum de Barasu. In 1379, the seat of the Catholic Capitol of Ţara Bârsei moves to Brasov from Feldioara – the administrative and religious capital during the Teutonic Knights' epoch. The privileges first received by Sibiu, in 1224, through the diploma of King Andrew IInd, have been conferred to Brasov in 1422 and expanded in 1486 upon the entire territory inhabited by the Saxons, called Universitas Saxonum.
Since the second half of the XIVth century, the „free royal town” Brasov knows an explosive development, becoming one of the most important economical and cultural urban centre of the principality. Its peculiarly advantageous geographical location ensures the town during the Middle Ages and later a privileged place in the commerce with Walachia and Moldavia, which monopole it possess, and through it, with the Balkans and the Baltic countries. The active changes undertaken in parallel with important urban centres of the kingdom, but also with those of the Central Europe, ensure simultaneously the dissemination of the western artistic forms in Transylvania, the commercial tracings functioning as veritable „cultural corridors”. An important role in the town’s development also have the handicrafts: In the XVth century are mentioned in documents new guilds, some of them comprising several domains of activity, and since the XVIth century – eighteen. With three suburbs outside the walls of the „Stronghold” (Kronstadt, Brassó), one inhabited by Romanians – „Șcheii” (Obere Vorstadt, Belgerei, Bolgárszeg), the other by the Magyars – „Blumăna” (Blumenau, Bolonya) and the third by Saxons peasants – „Orașul Vechi” (Altstadt, Óbrassó), Brașov becomes at the same time the most popular settlement of Transylvania, counting in 1489 around 2.000 inhabitants, among which 37% were artisans.
During the Middle Ages, Brasov used to be an important supporting point in the anti-Ottoman fight in this region of Europe, the fastening of the towns and the localities of Transylvania being supported directly by the Magyar royalty. In the XIVth century started the construction of the marginal fortifications systematically developed until 1646, which made of Brasov one of the most fastened medieval towns of Transylvania.
After the fall of the Magyar Kingdom under the Turks in 1526, Transylvania is proclaimed in 1541 a principality under Ottoman suzerainty. The House of Habsburg doesn’t give up however its older claims upon the principality, which will be included into the Empire a century and a half later; after 1551, the military troops of the Emperor Ferdinand I, guided by the General Giovanni Battista Castaldo occupied Transylvania.
In spite of the mutations occurred on political plan, Brasov knows also in the XVIth century a period of maximum flourishing, remaining a powerful handicraft centre and an European outlet, with a privileged place in the international commercial system. In 1542, the German population embraces the religious Reform in its Lutheran version, through the major contribution of the humanist Johannes Honterus (1498-1549), Braşov highlighting among the other towns „by the dissemination of the sciences”. Following the initiative of Honterus, in 1545, Johannes Benkner and Johannes Fux built the first paper mill in Transylvania, supporting the typographical activity in the Stronghold, where along with the tomes destined to the Saxon gymnasium, Deacon Coresi of Târgovişte publishes between 1556 and 1583, the biggest number of books in Romanian language of the XVIth century on the territory of the three principalities.
The XVIIth century The defeat suffered by the Turks under Vienna's walls, in 1683, marked the beginning of the Hapsburgs’ counteroffensive and their advancement towards south-east, Transylvania being incorporated into the Empire in 1686. In 1689, a year after the entrance of the Austrian troops in the town, burst the most devastating fire of Braşov’s history. The rebuilt of the town is undertaken with difficulty, and the reconstruction of the destroyed buildings bears the mark of the new styles imported from the Empire’s capital. This is the period when there are carried out cartographic works and important civil works.
The XVIIIth century and the first half of the following century also was the flourishing epoch of the Romanian commerce at Brasov, carrying along the intellectual and national emancipation movement, which climax were the event of 1848. Şcheii Braşovului with Saint Nicholas Church and the school constitute since the Middle Ages a centre of major importance for the cultural and artistic life of the Romanians of Transylvania, in permanent contact with Great Walachia and Moldavia. In 1781, by the Conviviality Rescript and the Edict of religious tolerance, issued by the chancellery of the Emperor Joseph I in 1781, the Romanians acquired the same rights as the prilvileged nations, at the middle of the XIXth century Brasov remarked itself as the most powerful centre of the Romanian bourgeoisie of Transylvania, with a fervent cultural life. In 1835 is founded Casina română, as an encounter place for the merchants of the „Crown's Stronghold”, which will become the environment of political promotion of the national interests. Among its members there are the Romanian intellectual and cultural elite, constituted by the founders of the Gazette of Transylvania, George Bariţiu, Iacob and Andrei Mureşianu and subsequently the teachers of the newly established gymnasium.
During the latest decades of the XIXth century, Peter Bartesch (1842–1914), the first „engineer of the town”, a commission he exerted between 1866 and 1884, designs the first systematisation plans, involving the urban development of the town towards the medieval suburbs, especially „Blumăna” neighbourhood.
In the XXth century, Brasov is involved in the major events which affected this part of Europe. After the end of World War I, in 1919 is celebrated the Great Union through which Transylvania became part of the Greater Romania. During the World War II, the town is bombarded and the firing destroyed several buildings of the north-eastern area of the stronghold.
Russians Stalin Communism Ceaușescu.
One of the most active centres in the battle against the totalitarian regime, abolished by the Revolution of December 1989, during which Brasov paid at its turn its blood tribute.
Short history of Braşov County
The first traces of the human existence in the area date back from 60.000 years ago. The inhabitants of these lands passed undoubtedly through all the phases specific to the ancient civilisation. A testimony of the historical past is the Roman cap near Râşnov, which used to be located at the north-eastern side of the Roman Empire boundary.
• Ţara Bârsei – Barsa’s Land (encompassing Braşov and its surroundings), played an important part in the Middle Ages, through its three strategic points which ensured its economical, military and political development:
- The first one is the Fagaras Stronghold, the region being known as Ţara Făgăraşului, a territory that was for a long period under Romanian administration, which conserved the ancient customs of the land and continued to be also a sure place in Transylvania for the princes of Wallachia.
- The second point is Bran Castle (located 30 km distant from Brasov on the European road E 574 towards Pitesti), nowadays a museum assembly hosting three permanent exhibitions: one inside the castle, the other in the Ethnography Museum (outdoor), and the third one in the building of the old customs.
- The third point is Brasov, first attested in the documents in 1235, the most important town in Transylvania during the Middle Ages, an economical stronghold in the XIV-XVIth century.
• The majority of the villages inhabited by the Saxons (Germanic population colonized in the XIIth century in Transylvania) conserve fastened churches, places for prayers and shelter. The biggest church – fortress of Brasov county is located at Prejmer, but equally interesting are the churches of Viscri and Homorod.